Facebook Google Plus Twitter LinkedIn YouTube RSS Menu Search Resource - BlogResource - WebinarResource - ReportResource - Eventicons_066 icons_067icons_068icons_069icons_070

Tenable 部落格


Analyzing the Vulnerabilities Associated with the Top Malware Strains of 2021

Analyzing the Vulnerabilities Associated with the Top Malware Strains of 2021

International cybersecurity agencies issue a joint alert outlining the top malware strains of 2021. We identified vulnerabilities associated with these strains.


On August 4, the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) and the Australian Cyber Security Centre (ACSC) released a joint cybersecurity advisory regarding the top malware strains observed being exploited throughout 2021. According to this advisory, most of these top strains have been seen in use for over five years, through different variations and evolutions.

While malware is used for a variety of purposes, the government agencies point out that ransomware is a primary use case.


Malware is most commonly distributed in phishing messages or malicious documents and websites; it often still relies on unpatched vulnerabilities to gain elevated privileges, move throughout target environments and execute code. We have analyzed reports on the malware strains to identify any vulnerabilities associated with them. This doesn’t represent an exhaustive list of vulnerabilities exploited by malware, but it is a helpful starting point for organizations to cut off attack paths for these most prevalent strains.

Based on this list, we have identified a few key themes regarding the vulnerabilities used in malware.

CVE Description CVSSv3 VPR*
CVE-2015-5122 Adobe Flash Player user-after-free v2 10.0 9.7
CVE-2016-0189 Scripting Engine memory corruption 7.5 9.8
CVE-2016-4171 Adobe Flash Player arbitrary code execution (apsa16-03) 9.8 8.9
CVE-2017-0144 Windows SMB remote code execution (EternalBlue) 8.1 9.6
CVE-2017-0199 Microsoft Office/WordPad remote code execution 7.8 9.8
CVE-2017-11882 Microsoft Office memory corruption 7.8 9.9
CVE-2017-8570 Microsoft Office remote code execution 7.8 9.8
CVE-2017-8750 Microsoft Browser memory corruption 7.5 8.9
CVE-2017-8759 .NET Framework remote code execution 7.8 9.8
CVE-2018-0798 Microsoft Office memory corruption 8.8 9.8
CVE-2018-0802 Microsoft Office memory corruption 7.8 9.8
CVE-2018-14847 MikroTik RouterOS remote code execution 9.1 8.8
CVE-2020-0787 Windows Background Intelligent Transfer Service elevation of privilege 7.8 9.8
CVE-2021-34527 Windows Print Spooler remote code execution (PrintNightmare) 8.8 9.8
CVE-2021-40444 Microsoft MSHTML remote code execution 7.8 9.8
CVE-2021-43890 Windows AppX installer spoofing vulnerability 7.1 9.2
CVE-2022-30190 Microsoft Windows Support Diagnostic Tool remote code execution (Follina) 7.8 9.8

*Please note: Tenable’s Vulnerability Priority Rating (VPR) scores are calculated nightly. This blog post was published on August 4 and reflects VPR at that time.

原文:Tenable Research, August 2022

Notably, 14 of the 17 vulnerabilities identified are in Microsoft products. Nine of the flaws are code execution vulnerabilities and five are memory corruption. It is interesting to see that there is only one elevation of privilege flaw, given that vulnerability type’s utility to other threat actors.

CVE-2017-11882, a memory corruption remote code execution flaw in Microsoft Office, is an interesting case. From what we have seen, it is widely exploited by malware, including six of the 11 strains listed in this advisory and Emotet. In 2019, CVE-2017-11882 was identified as the most common delivery method for spreading malware by Cofense. It was also identified as a routinely exploited vulnerability in both 2020 and 2021 according to several government cybersecurity agencies.

We routinely see CVE-2017-11882 being used by various malware strains, including Trickbot and Qakbot, which are both first-stage malware components that download secondary and tertiary malware, which may include a variety of ransomware. Ultimately, vulnerabilities like CVE-2017-11882, CVE-2017-0199 and CVE-2021-40444 are just vehicles for threat actors to gain initial access into a targeted network.

Vulnerabilities used by ransomware affiliates and IABs

Several vulnerabilities connected to the joint alert have been utilized by key players in the ransomware ecosystem, including Initial Access Brokers (IABs) and ransomware affiliates. The flaws have also been used as part of first stage malware components to deploy ransomware.

The LockBit ransomware group and its affiliates have been seen using CVE-2020-0787, an elevation of privilege vulnerability in the Microsoft Windows Background Intelligent Transfer Service. CVE-2021-34527, an elevation of privilege vulnerability in the Windows Print Spooler service, referred to as PrintNightmare, has been utilized by several ransomware groups including Vice Society, Conti, Magniber and Black Basta. Elevation of privilege vulnerabilities are valuable tools as part of post-compromise activity, once an attacker has gained access to a vulnerable system with limited privileges.

CVE-2021-40444, a remote code execution vulnerability in Microsoft MSHTML, was used by EXOTIC LILY, an IAB that worked directly with the Conti ransomware group. IABs specialize in gaining initial access to an organization and selling access to a variety of threat actors, including ransomware affiliates or in rare instances, partnering directly with ransomware groups like Conti. We dive into the various players in our Ransomware Ecosystem report, which includes a broader list of known vulnerabilities leveraged by IABs, affiliates and ransomware groups.

Adoption of CVE-2022-30190, aka Follina

The majority of the vulnerabilities identified are at least two years old, which tracks with the “if it isn’t broken, don’t fix it” approach most attackers take in their toolsets. If seven-year-old vulnerabilities are still working, why would they adopt new ones?

One vulnerability that busts this trend is CVE-2022-30190, aka “Follina,” a zero day publicly disclosed in May of this year based on attacks in April. Its speedy adoption into malware (Qakbot and Remco specifically) shows the confounding nature of threat actors. They will rely on old faithful vulnerabilities like CVE-2017-11882, but they’ll also bring new flaws into their repertoire, especially when there is publicly available proof-of-concept code.

Top malware use top exploited vulnerabilities of 2021

In April, CISA, the National Security Agency, Federal Bureau of Investigation, ACSC, Canadian Centre for Cyber Security, New Zealand National Cyber Security Centre, and United Kingdom’s National Cyber Security Centre released an advisory listing the top routinely exploited vulnerabilities of 2021. The report highlighted 36 vulnerabilities frequently exploited by threat actors; four of those are also represented in malware associated with this latest advisory — two of them were released after the relevant timeframe.

Two of the vulnerabilities that appear on both lists, CVE-2021-34527 (PrintNightmare) and CVE-2021-40444, were also among the top five vulnerabilities of 2021 in Tenable’s Threat Landscape Retrospective. We have seen sustained exploitation of these flaws by diverse threat actors since their disclosure. The continued exploitation is troubling evidence that organizations are leaving these flaws unremediated, which is particularly concerning considering how many Print Spooler flaws Microsoft has patched in the intervening year since PrintNightmare.

When making prioritization decisions, it’s always valuable to consider multiple data points. While the majority of the vulnerabilities associated with this malware advisory may not have been the top exploited flaws in 2021, remediating them is still an important step to reducing risk. It’s about cutting down known paths of exploitation.


A list of Tenable plugins to identify these vulnerabilities can be found here. This link uses a search filter to ensure that all matching plugin coverage will appear for the vulnerabilities referenced in this post.


加入 Tenable Community 的 Tenable 安全回應團隊

深入瞭解 Tenable,這是用於全面管理新型攻擊破綻的首創 Cyber Exposure 平台。

Get a free 30-day trial of Tenable.io Vulnerability Management.



輸入您的電子郵件地址,以便收到最新 cyber exposure 警示。



您的 Tenable.io Vulnerability Management 試用版也包含 Tenable Lumin、Tenable.io Web Application Scanning 和 Tenable.cs Cloud Security。

tenable.io 購買

享受現代、雲端型的弱點管理平台,使您能夠以無與倫比的準確性查看和追蹤所有資產。 立即訂閱一年。

65 項資產



免費試用 Nessus Professional

免費試用 7 天

Nessus® 是現今市場上功能最全面的弱點掃描工具。

最新 - Nessus Expert 現已上市

Nessus Expert 新增了更多功能,包括外部攻擊破綻掃描和新增網域及掃描雲端基礎架構的能力。按這裡試用 Nessus Expert。

請填妥以下表單以繼續 Nessus Professional 試用。

購買 Nessus Professional

Nessus® 是現今市場上功能最全面的弱點掃描工具。Nessus Professional 能協助自動化弱點掃描程序、節省您達到合規性的時間並讓您的 IT 團隊合作。

購買多年期授權,節省更多。新增 365 天全年無休 24 小時全天候可使用電話、社群及對談的進階支援。






您的 Tenable.io Vulnerability Management 試用版也包含 Tenable Lumin、Tenable.io Web Application Scanning 和 Tenable.cs Cloud Security。

Tenable.io 購買

享受現代、雲端型的弱點管理平台,使您能夠以無與倫比的準確性查看和追蹤所有資產。 立即訂閱一年。

65 項資產



試用 Tenable.io Web Application Scanning

享受我們專為現代應用程式而設計,屬於 Tenable.io 平台一部分的最新 Web 應用程式掃描產品的所有功能。不需耗費大量人力或中斷重要 Web 應用程式,即可高度準確且安全地掃描您整個線上產品系列中是否含有任何弱點。 立即註冊。

您的 Tenable Web Application Scanning 試用版也包含 Tenable.io Vulnerability Management、Tenable Lumin 和 Tenable.cs Cloud Security。

購買 Tenable.io Web Application Scanning

享受現代、雲端型的弱點管理平台,使您能夠以無與倫比的準確性查看和追蹤所有資產。 立即訂閱一年。

5 個 FQDN



試用 Tenable.io Container Security

享受整合至弱點管理平台中的唯一容器安全產品的完整功能。監控容器映像中是否有弱點、惡意軟體及政策違規的情形。與持續整合和持續部署 (CI/CD) 系統整合,以支援 DevOps 作法、加強安全性並支援企業政策合規性。

購買 Tenable.io Container Security

Tenable.io Container Security 整合了建置程序,能提供包含弱點、惡意軟體和政策違規等容器映像安全性的能見度,讓您無縫並安全地啟用 DevOps 流程。

試用 Tenable Lumin

透過 Tenable Lumin,能夠以視覺方式呈現 Cyber Exposure 並加以探索,長期追蹤風險降低狀況,以及對照同業進行指標分析。

您的 Tenable Lumin 試用版也包含 Tenable.io Vulnerability Management、Tenable.io Web Application Scanning 和 Tenable.cs Cloud Security。

購買 Tenable Lumin

聯絡業務代表,瞭解 Lumin 如何協助您獲得整個企業的深入洞見,並管理網路風險。

試用 Tenable.cs


您的 Tenable.cs Cloud Security 試用版也包含 Tenable.io Vulnerability Management、Tenable Lumin 和 Tenable.io Web Application Scanning。

聯絡業務代表購買 Tenable.cs

聯絡業務代表,以深入瞭解 Tenable.cs Cloud Security 如何輕鬆讓您的雲端帳戶上線,以及如何在數分鐘內輕鬆取得雲端錯誤設定與弱點的能見度。

免費試用 Nessus Expert

免費試用 7 天

Nessus Expert 是專為現代攻擊破綻所打造,它能讓您從 IT 到雲端洞察更多資訊,並保護貴公司免於弱點危害。

您已擁有 Nessus Professional 嗎?
升級至 Nessus Expert,免費試用 7 天。

購買 Nessus Expert

Nessus Expert 是專為現代攻擊破綻所打造,它能讓您從 IT 到雲端洞察更多資訊,並保護貴公司免於弱點危害。